Public facing sites hosted in SharePoint commonly needs anonymous access and that’s been there for quite long now.
Generic configurations are done from Central Administration and Site Permission Level but these steps will not allow anonymous users to have read access to all the content unless you specify.
- Enable anonymous access in “Authentication Providers” (Central Administration –> Application Management –> Select the target Web Application) – All Scenarios
- Grant rights to anonymous users in “Site permissions” -All Scenarios
- Grant rights to specific library (in some scenarios)
but you will get authentication prompted when anonymously accessing lists, libraries or items stored in.
To have read access to all lists and libraries across the site, you also need to Disable the “Limited-access user permission lockdown mode” Site Collection Features. Deactivating this feature will grant anonymous users to access all resources across the site (which are granted for anonymous access)